The changed picture of pathology is in close causal relationship with shifts in demographic processes (see Demography), which in economically developed countries are characterized by a downward trend in the birth rate (to about 15-18 per 1,000 inhabitants), relative stabilization of the total (9-12 per 1,000 inhabitants). one thousand inhabitants) and infant (15-25 per thousand live births) mortality and high average life expectancy (69-73 years). There is a general “aging” of the population, that is, an increase in the percentage (in a number of countries up to 15-18) of persons 60 years of age and older.
As a result of the spontaneous use of natural resources and air pollution in a number of regions of the planet, the threshold of self-protection of nature has been crossed, the processes of spontaneous improvement of the environment have been undermined, and substances that are dangerous to humans are accumulating in it.
In addition to scientific problems, modern M. is more acute than ever before ethical problems concerning the relationship between a doctor and a patient (see also Deontology), the limits of permissible intervention (for example, the effect on the psyche of psychotropic drugs (See Psychotropic drugs)), donation during organ transplants (see Transplantation), etc.